Homeostasis of adult human stem cells and carcinogenesis

Homeostasis of adult human stem cells and carcinogenesis,10.1134/S0362119710060010,Human Physiology,K. A. Lebedev

Homeostasis of adult human stem cells and carcinogenesis  
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Treatment of malignant diseases with radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunodepressants requires subsequent restoration of bone marrow by the use of transplantation of donor bone marrow or separated adult stem cells to the body. During the next 1–15 years, in these patients, the risk of malignant neoplasia substantially increases as compared to healthy persons. This was previously considered as the effect of treatment. However, it has been found that part of cells and the stroma of a secondary tumor consist of progenies of transplanted stem cells. This demonstrates an important role of stem cells in tumorigenesis. Numerous studies also show that adult mouse or human stem cells cultured in vitro can form foci of sarcoma, cancer or other types of malignant growth. Malignant growth is more intense when chronic inflammation is present in the body. A lot of experimental data including studies in humans demonstrated that, after transplantation, stem cells actively occupy the tumor stroma, stimulate tumorigenesis and its metastasis. An important condition of human life is the presence of strong homeostatic mechanisms that control the number of stem cells in the body and limit their division even in regeneration foci. After transplantation of stem cells, their number in the blood and, correspndingly, in a pathological regeneration location increases by the dozens. This level of cells in the body cannot be reached spontaneously. This significantly enhances the rate of tissue regeneration, which creates conditions for malignant growth.
Journal: Human Physiology , vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 621-628, 2010
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